Wednesday, 30 April 2014

Digital Literacy: Across the Border

In my previous post about Digital Literacy I attempted to set the context of what is currently happening in education in Wales with regards to the recommendations from the ICT Steering Group report. These recommendations included the changing of ICT to the new subject of Computing, and the introduction of a statutory Digital Literacy Framework that would sit alongside the current Literacy and Numeracy Frameworks. The Welsh Government in their response to that report explained that Digital Literacy would now become part of a statutory Wider Skills Framework. Currently Professor Graham Donaldson has been tasked with reviewing education in Wales and one of his remits is to look at the ICT Steering Group report and recommendations. His review findings should be released at the end of 2014.

It was was important for me to try and look at the definition of digital literacy. I personally feel that there is some ambiguity about the term, which I will come back to at the end of this post. For me the term is closely related to someone who can be thought of as being 'digitally literate', someone who is educated or has a good understanding in the field of using digital technology. The Royal Society definition of Digital Literacy does outline some of the skills which a person would need, which were very much around the basic functional skills of using a variety of devices and software safely. This is to my mind what schools were doing (or are doing) currently under the umbrella of ICT. I also looked at a definition from Futurelab which broke down digital literacy into eight areas. These included functional skills alongside, e-safety, collaboration, creativity, cultural and social understanding, critical thinking and evaluation, effective communication and the ability to find and select information. Common Sense Media in their description of digital literacy include areas such as; privacy and security, digital footprint and reputation, and creative credit and copyright. All of which you may arguably agree are equally important for someone who can be thought of as being digitally literate in society today.

Digital Literacy in the Computing PoS for England

I'm going to look next at what I see currently happening in England with regards to the new Computing PoS changes which come into effect in September 2014, as this might help us in Wales gain some idea about where things maybe possibly heading. I explained in the previous post that the new Computing PoS requirements could be thought of as being split into three sections - Computer Science (CS), Information Technology (IT) and Digital Literacy (DL). For this post I shall only be concentrating on the Information Technology and Digital Literacy elements. In the Computing PoS requirements are written the aims of the new curriculum:
  • can evaluate and apply information technology, including new or unfamiliar technologies, analytically to solve problems
  • are responsible, competent, confident and creative users of information and communication technology.
The first point could be thought of as being related to Information Technology, the second to Digital Literacy.

A very good guide to the new Computing PoS for primary schools has been jointly produced by Computing at School and NAACE called "Computing in the National Curriculum: A Guide for Primary Teachers". The document, authored by Miles Berry, provides a very good overview to the new requirements by key stage, the terminology used, planning and teaching approaches. Below you can see a screen shot from that document showing how they have interpreted those requirements into the three sections by key stage.
Taken from Computing in the national curriculum - a guide for primary teachers (2013)
Looking at this interpretation of what constitutes Digital Literacy in the primary school we can see that the focus is very much on e-safety, respectful and responsible use of technology, how technologies are used beyond school and opportunities to use technology to support collaborative practices and for communication. These relate closely to the models from Futurelab, Jisc or other organisations such as Common Sense Media and MediaSmarts. The Information Technology requirements basically look very similar to the ICT requirements as they currently stand in Wales under the strands of Finding and Analysing, and Creating and Communicating.

Interestingly the Royal Society's definition of Digital Literacy is actually probably more akin in this example to the Information Technology requirements and not Digital Literacy:
"Digital literacy should be understood to mean the basic skill or ability to use a computer confidently, safely and effectively, including: the ability to use office software such as word processors, email and presentation software, the ability to create and edit images, audio and video, and the ability to use a web browser and internet search engines
I've been unable to find a similar document to the “Computing in the National Curriculum” for secondary teachers (although I'm sure there must be one out there). I've therefore taken the KS3 requirements for England and constructed a table with a similar interpretation of the requirements as the table above.


  • design, use and evaluate computational abstractions that model the state and behaviour of real-world problems and physical systems
  • understand several key algorithms that reflect computational thinking [for example, ones for sorting and searching]; use logical reasoning to compare the utility of alternative algorithms for the same problem
  • use two or more programming languages, at least one of which is textual, to solve a variety of computational problems; make appropriate use of data structures [for example, lists, tables or arrays]; design and develop modular programs that use procedures or functions
  • understand simple Boolean logic [for example, AND, OR and NOT] and some of its uses in circuits and programming; understand how numbers can be represented in binary, and be able to carry out simple operations on binary numbers [for example, binary addition, and conversion between binary and decimal]
  • understand the hardware and software components that make up computer systems, and how they communicate with one another and with other systems
  • understand how instructions are stored and executed within a computer system; understand how data of various types (including text, sounds and pictures) can be represented and manipulated digitally, in the form of binary digits

  • undertake creative projects that involve selecting, using, and combining multiple applications, preferably across a range of devices, to achieve challenging goals, including collecting and analysing data and meeting the needs of known users
  • create, re-use, revise and re-purpose digital artefacts for a given audience, with attention to trustworthiness, design and usability


  • understand a range of ways to use technology safely, respectfully, responsibly and securely, including protecting their online identity and privacy; recognise inappropriate content, contact and conduct and know how to report concerns.

Again Digital Literacy is being defined as e-safety and being responsible and respectful users, but does now develop this into issues around online identity, privacy, and security. Interestingly there are no specific mentions of effective searching (or researching), which I personally would have thought would be developed further as the pupils get older, nor mentions about networks for communication and collaboration. Information Technology is very much about combining applications from a variety of devices to create, re-use, revise or re-purpose digital artefacts to solve a problem.

Digital Literacy Ambiguity

It's worth noting that the ambiguity as to what exactly constitutes Digital Literacy is actually referred to in the "Computing in the National Curriculum" document. The Digital Literacy definitions and descriptions outlined in my last post are being separated out between Information Literacy and Digital Literacy:
“(The) distinction between information technology and digital literacy is open to some interpretation, (the) important thing is to cover the content in a balanced, stimulating and creative way rather than being overly concerned about the specifics of terminology.”
I understand and very much agree with the principle of what is said, however I would like to pick up on the specifics of the Digital Literacy terminology, for the reasons that I'll explain below.

At this time, education in Wales is quite rightly focussed on literacy and numeracy, with statutory frameworks supporting their integration across the whole curriculum from the foundation phase to KS3, I think some schools and teachers could easily become confused with the term "Digital Literacy” and what it means for them. For example, I’ve recently seen adverts for a couple of events being held in the UK that have a focus on Digital Literacy in the new curriculum. It was interesting to see that in each, the practical workshop sessions were mainly focussed on technology to support literacy in the classroom. I personally think that maybe they are missing the essence of what being digitally literate in a Computing PoS context is about. Have workshops on how digital skills and tools can be applied to support aspects of literacy, but equally we should also be seeing workshops on the digital skills and tools that support numeracy such as the use of spreadsheets, databases, or sessions on computer modelling and simulations - very important areas in supporting the STEM subjects for instance. The ability to use these tools appropriately is in my opinion, equally as important as the skills needed for word processing, desk-top publishing or video editing which we see commonly used to support literacy across the curriculum. If there were more examples of spreadsheets activities, or modelling and simulation at conferences, courses and seminars then maybe Estyn wouldn't feel the need to highlight these as areas of weakness in primary schools at KS2 for example. In fact, based on the Computing PoS requirements seen above, that have been interpreted as being Digital Literacy, the main focus of any event about Digital Literacy should predominantly be around the issues of e-safety, digital footprint, effective researching, and the responsible and respectful use of technology. This too appears to be overlooked in the event descriptions that I read. Anecdotally I’ve also been speaking to teaching colleagues and asking them what “Digital Literacy” means to them and get the same answer that it's about technology that supports literacy.

I therefore believe that there could be a question around the term 'Digital Literacy'. To me and possibly to others, it is ambiguous. The word 'literacy' is certainly a high profile word at the moment with all teachers, and they would naturally use it in the context of "the ability to read and write". It is therefore completely understandable why some might look at the term Digital Literacy and think that this is about technology supporting literacy, which doesn't get fully to the core of what it means to prepare someone to be 'digitally literate' for today's society.
"Digitally literate – able to use, and express themselves and develop their ideas through, information and communication technology – at a level suitable for the future workplace and as active participants in a digital world."
Computing in the National Curriculum. A Guide For Primary Teachers, (2013)
It also seems like literacies are the new 'buzzword', with a literacy seemingly associated with almost all areas of education. Could this become another educational term that will too soon go ‘out of fashion’? Is there a more appropriate term that could be used, that may help schools and teachers get a better grasp on what it means to prepare students to be digitally literate?

Friday, 25 April 2014

Digital Literacy: The Context for Wales & Definitions

At a time when England have introduced digital literacy elements to their new Computing PoS, and with the recommendations from the ICT Steering Group report for a digital literacy framework alongside the new subject of Computing, I’ve been attempting to look closely into what exactly is meant by the term ‘digital literacy’, and ultimately what this could mean for primary and secondary schools in Wales. I intend to put together a series of blogs on the topic, mainly as a way to help me with my understanding around some of the current thinking in this field, but hopefully it will still be of interest to teachers and others. I'd welcome any of your thoughts or comments on this topic.

The Context

In June 2012, Leighton Andrews, the then Minister for Education and Skills, announced “an additional £3m of funding over the next three years to support a range of measures to improve computer science, digital literacy and ICT in schools and colleges across Wales.” This announcement came soon after the Royal Society’s, “Shut Down or Restart?” report in January 2012, which recommended the disaggregating of ICT into clearly defined areas such as Computer Science, Information Technology and digital literacy.

Mr. Andrews then added, “we believe that every child should be expected to be ‘digitally literate’ by the end of compulsory education, in the same way that every child is expected to be able to read and write.”

In September 2013, England published their new Computing PoS for KS1 to 4, that would be taught in maintained schools in England from September 2014. The subject content of which reflected the Royal Society’s report containing statements that could be grouped together as Computer Science, Information Technology and digital literacy.
January 2013 saw the formation of an ICT Steering Group to consider the future of ICT and Computer Science for schools in Wales. In particular the group was asked to consider the following points:
• ‘ICT’ in education needs to be re-branded, re-engineered and made relevant to now and the future
• Digital Literacy is the start and not the end point - learners need to be taught to create as well as to consume
• Computer science should be introduced at primary school and developed over the course of the curriculum so that learners can progress into a career pathway in the sector
• Skills, such as creative problem-solving, should be reflected in the curriculum
• Revised qualifications need to be developed in partnership with schools, higher education and industry
In September 2013 the group published its report containing 12 recommendations.

Recommendation 1 called for the disaggregating of the subject ICT (as in the Royal Society’s report), but unlike England, only into the two areas of Computer Science and Information Technology. Recommendation 3 suggested the development and implementation of a statutory Digital Literacy Framework from Foundation Phase through to post-16 education and that this would “complement and sit alongside the current Literacy and Numeracy Frameworks.”

Huw Lewis, Minister for Education and Skills responded to ICT Steering Group’s report in March 2014, and stated that “initial scoping work towards the development of a framework for the teaching and learning of digital literacy skills has already taken place”, but that digital literacy is “a key theme under under ‘Wider Skills’, with the intention of placing these on a statutory footing in the curriculum in Wales.” Therefore there appears to be no separate digital literacy framework, but it’s inclusion in a Wider Skills Framework which comprises of:

  • critical thinking and problem solving 
  • planning and organising 
  • creativity and innovation 
  • personal effectiveness 
  • digital literacy
However, it should be noted that the Welsh Government has recently tasked Professor Graham Donaldson with putting forward recommendations for a clear vision of education in Wales, from Foundation Phase to KS4, and part of his remit is to look at the reports from a variety of stakeholders, including the ICT Steering Group report. He is due to report his findings at the end of the year (2014). It will be very interesting to see what Prof Donaldson recommends.

Coincidentally, Dr. Tom Crick who was a co-chair of the ICT Steering Group, tweeted this yesterday.

Tweet from Dr. Tom Crick, 24th April 2014

What Is Digital Literacy?

Well let’s take both words separately before looking at numerous definitions of the term itself.

Digital - one of the definitions of which is “Involving or relating to the use of computer technology” or “Characterized by widespread use of computers”. I think most of us would be happy with that simple definition in this particular context.

Literacy - “the ability to read and write” or the broader definition of being “knowledgable or educated in a particular field or fields”. Both quite straight-forward and explanatory definitions.

Therefore if I was to put the two definitions together then it could give me a definition something along the lines of, “a persons knowledge in using computer technology”. Let’s have a look at some more formal and detailed definitions from various organisations. This is certainly by no means an exhaustive list.

The Royal Society

I’ll start with this definition from the Royal Society, it comes from the influential “Shut down and restart?” (2012) report which is very much at the heart of the curriculum changes in England and the ICT Steering Group in Wales recommendations.
"Digital literacy should be understood to mean the basic skill or ability to use a computer confidently, safely and effectively, including: the ability to use office software such as word processors, email and presentation software, the ability to create and edit images, audio and video, and the ability to use a web browser and internet search engines. These are the skills that teachers of other subjects at secondary school should be able to assume that their pupils have, as an analogue of being able to read and write. 
Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, January 2012, Page 17 
What I find particularly interesting about this definition is that in my opinion this is basically what schools should have been (or are) carrying out under the ‘belittled’ subject of ICT. It looks like all we are doing is changing the terminology ("re-branding, re-engineered") from ICT to Digital Literacy. I do however particularly like the final sentence about “teachers of other subjects at secondary school should be able to assume that their pupils have, as an analogue of being able to read and write.” I hope to come back to this in a further post.


I thought I go back and have a look at how Becta defined digital literacy.
"Digital literacy is the combination of skills, knowledge and understanding that young people need to learn in order to participate fully and safely in an increasingly digital world.
This array of skills, knowledge and understanding is a key component of the primary and secondary curriculum and should be incorporated in the teaching of all subjects at all levels."
Digital Literacy. Teaching critical thinking for our digital world, March 2010, Page 3
In my opinion this definition is actually pretty closely matched to the Royal Society’s version. It too talks about an array of skills, but unlike the Royal Society it is not expanded upon. It also mentions that this is done safely, and that the skills, knowledge, and understanding should be incorporated into the teaching of all subjects. Perhaps the only difference I can pick up in this is the reference to “an increasingly digital world” which we don't find in the Royal Society's definition.

"To be digitally literate is to have access to a broad range of practices and cultural resources that you are able to apply to digital tools. It is the ability to make and share meaning in different modes and formats; to create, collaborate and communicate effectively and to understand how and when digital technologies can best be used to support these processes."
"Digital Literacy Across the Curriculum", 2010, Page 4
This is the first definition where we see the words “collaborate and communicate” being used. Futurelab do elaborate further on this definition and break down digital literacy into eight areas:

  • functional skills 
  • critical thinking and evaluation 
  • creativity 
  • e-safety 
  • effective communication 
  • the ability to find and select information 
  • collaboration 
  • cultural and social understanding 
Contrast this with the Royal Society definition. Their definition seems focussed only on functional skills (basic skill or ability to use a computer), e-safety (confidently, safely and effectively), effective communication (email) and the ability to find and select information (the ability to use...internet search engines). Futurelab are now introducing creativity, critical thinking and evaluating, cultural and social understanding and collaboration into the digital literacy mix. Interestingly if you look back to the Welsh Government's proposal for the Wider Skills Framework you will see critical thinking and creativity elements included but in a broader context, not necessarily only from a digital perspective.

It might also be useful to look at the Common Sense Media's digital literacy & citizenship curriculum which broadens out the themes of e-safety, finding and selecting information, and cultural and social understanding into headings such as:
  • internet safety
  • privacy & security
  • digital footprint & reputation
  • information literacy
  • creative credit & copyright 
which one could certainly argue as being equally as important features of being a digitally literate citizen. Suddenly the simple Royal Society comment of using the computer "safely" becomes a larger and important area. But how much of this is taught in Computing lessons, and how much of this is a whole school issue?

"We simply define digital literacies as the capabilities which fit someone for living, learning and working in a digital society."
"Developing Students' Digital Literacies", 2014
A very simple definition from Jisc. But in my opinion the key to this definition is unpacking the word ‘capabilities’. Both Becta and Futurelab mention skills, knowledge, understanding and practices to be digitally literate. Only in the Royal Society definition do we really get a description of those skills and abilities that they believe are needed to be digitally literate. I should add that Jisc do elaborate on their definition breaking digital literacy down into some similar areas to the Futurelab model.

A couple of questions for me to think about:

What are those capabilities and skills that someone would need to live, learn and work in a digital society? Remember Leighton Andrews said, "“we believe that every child should be expected to be ‘digitally literate’ by the end of compulsory education, in the same way that every child is expected to be able to read and write.”

What are the digital literacy skills that a secondary school teacher would assume their pupils to have when they enter his or hers class? Are these a different skill set from the question above?

Are digital literacy skills different for each curriculum subject? What's common to every subject?

Where does digital literacy get taught? Is it only in ICT Computing lessons?

At a time when there seems to be a wide variety of 'literacies' in education - physical literacy, emotional literacy, musical literacy, information literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, cultural literacy, functional literacy, financial literacy, social literacy….the list is endless, I particularly liked this humorous tweet from @edtechhulk on this literacy terminology ‘overload’.


It is also perhaps worth noting that in the European Commission they refer to digital literacy as digital competence, which I personally quite like :-)

In my next series of blog postings I hope to look at a couple of existing digital literacy frameworks, what digital literacy looks like in the new English Computing PoS and possibly how a new statutory digital literacy (or wider skills framework) could work alongside a new Computing curriculum for Wales.

Some of My Background Reading

£3M investment in computer science and digital literacy in Wales -

Common Sense Media - Digital Literacy and Citizenship Classroom Curriculum -

Developing students’ digital literacies -

DigiLit Leicester Framework -

Digital Competence in Practice: An Analysis of Frameworks -

Digital literacy across the curriculum handbook -

Digital literacy and the new curriculum -

Digital literacy. Teaching critical thinking for our digital world -

Digital Literacy: My curated links to all things related to the topic -

Good lord! Where’s the digital literacy? -

ICT Steering Group’s Report to Welsh Government and Welsh Government Response -

Jisc Infonet: Developing digital literacies -

MediaSmarts - Digital Literacy Fundamentals -

National curriculum in England: computing programmes of study -

Review of Curriculum in Wales -

Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools. -
South West Grid for Learning Digital Literacy -

SQA Digital Literacy Competence Framework -

The Essential Elements of Digital Literacies -

The Open University: Digital and information literacy framework -

Wikipedia definition of digital literacy-

Wednesday, 16 April 2014

British Pathe YouTube Channel

Some really good news, British Pathe have now launched a YouTube channel. Users now have access to 85,000 historical films, about 3,500 hours of historical footage. Definitely an excellent resource for supporting history in the primary and secondary school. Hopefully your local authority hasn't blocked YouTube for use in school!! I've just been Chromecasting the videos to my TV, but they can obviously be embedded and shared in the usual ways.

They also have separate channels focussing on War, Vintage Fashions and Sporting History. British Pathe have created some playlists under different themes to help you explore some topics. A couple fo examples are shown below.

World War I

Greatest Sporting Moments

Vintage Fashions